Flocks of white-fronted terns feeding over shoals of pelagic fish often attract the attention of fishers wishing to troll for kahawai, giving rise to the tern’s alternative name of kahawai bird. Common tern Scientific name: Sterna hirundo Bird family: Gulls and terns UK conservation status: Amber Protected by The Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 These include the common tern and the Arctic tern, both from the Arctic region, and the little tern and the white-winged black tern from Asia. All subspecies in breeding plumage have a black cap extending over their nape and crown to the base of their bill. White-fronted terns are common all around New Zealand coasts. Breeding plumage has black cap with white forehead chevron, black-tipped yellow bill. Readily identified by tiny size, though wintering adults can be confusingly similar in patterning to Common Tern; look out for black stripes extending from the shoulder to the wingtip. New Zealand Birds Online. Their body and sharply forked tail are white, and their wings are pale grey. The sexes are similar. The head is capped in black to below the eye, leaving a white area above the bill. In the non-breeding season it migrates south to coastal areas including Australasia. Mills, J.A. Oxford University Press: Melbourne. Flying Tern. The New Zealand bird views series highlights the common birds in New Zealand – the birds we view every day but tend to take for granted because they are always there. The forked tail enables the bird to manoeuvre extremely well, which is an advantage in foraging for small fish. It is pale grey above and white below, with a black cap that is separated from the bill by a white band (or by an entirely white fore-crown in non-breeding plumage). The White Fronted Tern is the most common tern in New Zealand. In Thai: นกนางนวลแกลบธรรมดา, nok naang-nuan klaep tham-ma-daa Binomial name: Sterna hirundo, Carolus Linnaeus, 1758 The common tern (Sterna hirundo) is a seabird in the family Laridae. 1996. At sea it frequently feeds in shoaling fish swarms associated with kahawai, gulls and shearwaters. Tennyson, A.J.D. Predators or humans entering a colony are repeatedly dived at. Notornis 7: 65-69. Often small stones are brought in to line the bottom of the nest. The upper parts and upper wings are a pearly grey/white and the neck, underparts and underwings are white. ; Davies, S.J.J.F. Pp. The arctic tern has similar coloration to the common tern, but it has an all-red beak and shorter, red legs. A common tern that hatched in Sweden and was found dead five months later on Stewart Island, New Zealand, must have flown at least 25,000 km (16,000 mi). Image of bill, longipennis, plumage - 158279792 Voice: the main call is a high-pitched siet; a harsh keark or keeahk is uttered by birds defending their nests. Breeding occurs mainly on the coast of New Zealand and its outlying islands, Stewart, Chatham, and Auckland Islands, and off northeast Tasmania at Flinders and Cape Barren Islands. In the breeding season, the black cap extends from the white frontal strip down to the back of neck, and both sexes may develop a pink flush to the underparts. White-fronted terns are our most common tern and are a joy to watch with their delicate flight and high pitched calls. Most Common Terns develop only a faint greyish flush below (some are darker though). The name ‘common tern’ is a misnomer in New Zealand as this species is a very rare vagrant here. I’ve managed to spy myself four of these species - The White-Fronted Tern, Black-Fronted Tern, Little Tern, and… Image © Thomas Musson by Thomas Musson. http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/speciesfactsheet.php?id=3270. Pair-bonds are retained from one season to the next. Common terns are gregarious, however most New Zealand records have been of single birds, most of which were associating with white-fronted terns. The White-fronted tern is a medium-sized, long-tailed sea Tern that is common around New Zealand coasts. This bird has a circumpolar distribution, its four subspecies breeding in temperate and subarctic regions of Europe, Asia and North America. ; Miranda – A short drive to Auckland’s South East Coast sees huge flocks of migratory shore birds (seasonal). Heather, B.D. Immature birds are similar to non-breeding adults. Their name refers to the narrow white band between their black cap and bill. Juveniles are similar to adults in non-breeding plumage but have brown tips to some of their dorsal feathers. White-fronted tern. Adult. longipennis), at Manawatu Estuary. White-fronted tern. The name ‘white-fronted’ refers to the ‘frons’ or forehead, where a thin strip of white separates the black cap from the black bill. 20/01/03 Common tern, Sterna hirundo (prob sub sp. Breeding plumage adults have a black-tipped red bill, a black cap extending over the nape and crown to the base of the bill; non-breeding adults have a white forehead and fore-crown, black bill and legs, and a variable dark bar on the inner upperwing. The call is a high pitched 'siet'. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic birds. Collins,Auckland. Outside of the breeding season the cap recedes, leaving the forehead white. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 7: 147-153. Grey body, black head, red beak and legs . Pahi, August 2012. The scientific name striata refers to the finely-barred (striated) dorsal plumage of recently fledged white-fronted terns, as the original description and name was based on a juvenile bird painted by William Ellis, surgeon’s second mate on the Discovery, on Captain Cook’s third visit to New Zealand. ABOVE: A Common Tern in breeding plumage photographed in July in Sweden. Common terns usually associate with white-fronted terns in New Zealand, but are often on the edge of a flock. London: Christopher Helm. Falla, R.A; Sibson, R.B. Image © Thomas Musson by Thomas Musson tomandelaine@xtra.co.nz. If seen in breeding plumage, the black cap of the common tern extends to the base of the bill, so it is unlike the plumage of the white-fronted tern, which always has a white strip between its bill and its black cap. They occasionally forage up larger Canterbury rivers, but are seldom found far from the coast. When breeding the Common Tern is white, with a black crown from bill to nape extending to the bottom of the eye. Readers Digest complete book of New Zealand birds (ed.Robertson, C.J.R.). Breeding usually occurs in large dense colonies on shingle river beds, sand dunes, stacks and cliffs. The bird gallery links to in-depth descriptions of most New Zealand birds. Tiny, delicate-looking tern. 223-243. Mills, J.A. Birds in non-breeding plumage have the black cap receded to above their eyes, and have a variable dark ‘cubital bar’ on the inner upperwing. The New Zealand bird views series highlights the common birds in New Zealand – the birds we view every day but tend to take for granted because they are always there. In breeding adults a striking black cap covers the head from forehead to nape, leaving a small white strip across the top of the black beak. common tern (Sterna hirundo), ... New Zealand. Voice: Grating and thin Calls at breeding colony (southern black-backed gull in background), Flight calls over roosting area (red-billed gulls prominent, shore plover in backround), Calls at breeding colony (some red-billed gull calls), Adults calling at breeding colony (black-backed gull in background). birds seen well offshore). New Zealand birding discussion forum. Eastern common tern Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Notornis 39: 319-321. The Common Tern is actually common in the northern hemisphere, and is less so in Australia. The White-fronted Tern is the most widespread tern in New Zealand. It is similar in appearance to some other tern species, particularly the white-fronted tern, and so is very hard to identify. A vagrant non-breeding Antarctic tern is another species that could be confused with common and Arctic terns, but Antarctic terns have not been reported north of Foveaux Strait. A medium-sized tern, pale grey above and white below, with a long white forked-tail, a black cap separated from the long pointed black bill by a white band, and a narrow dark band on the outer edge of the first primary. This tern is the most common tern on the New Zealand coastline, at times occurring in flocks of many hundreds or even thousands of birds. Common tern. The southern migration begins in August-September and birds fly north again from February. Actual flight distances are, of course, much greater than the shortest possible route. Properties Language English Application - is vernacular for Full name ... New Zealand Inventory of Biodiversity Volume 1. This volume presents over 100 previously unpublished photographs of the three species of common tern in New Zealand: Black-fronted tern, Caspian tern, White-fronted tern. A field guide to the birds of New Zealand. The common tern is a small to medium-sized tern which has distinct breeding and non-breeding plumages. The New Zealand population has declined markedly over the last 40 years and is currently regarded as At Risk/Declining. The white-fronted tern is a medium-sized, long-tailed sea tern that is common around New Zealand coasts. Colonies of nesting terns are vulnerable to disturbance by people and their dogs. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic birds. www.nzbirdsonline.org.nz, Similar species: Common tern, Arctic tern. The back and upperwings are grey, the rump dark brown and the bill is red, tipped black. Once widespread around the North Island and on the eastern South Island, the New Zealand fairy tern now breeds at only four main nesting sites - … (ed.) White-fronted terns often nest adjacent to red-billed gull colonies and some gulls, especially males, specialise in preying on the eggs and chicks of terns. The common tern is also similar to the rare Arctic tern, which is smaller, normally has shorter legs, sometimes has a red bill, and has a whiter crown in non-breeding plumage. Their body and sharply forked tail are white, and their wings are pale grey. ; Robertson, H.A. In Miskelly, C.M. High quality Common Tern gifts and merchandise. The white-fronted tern also known as Tara, Sea Swallow, Black-billed Tern, Kahawai Bird, Southern Tern, or Swallow tail, was first described by Johann Friedrich Gmelin in 1789. Common tern. Adult non-breeding. The pilings of an old bridge in Tauranga are a regular nesting site for a small group and is easily accessible for photography from the footpath on the … White-fronted terns are the most common tern species on the New Zealand coast and are often seen in large flocks. Forster's tern ( S. forsteri ) breeds in salt and freshwater marshes of the northern prairies, and to a lesser degree along the southern coasts of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. 1966. ; Shaw, P.W. The Terns are an iconic family of New Zealand birds. Most other ‘capped’ terns, including the black-fronted tern, have black caps that reach the bill when in breeding plumage. The Handbook of Bird Identification: For Europe and the Western Palearctic. The white-fronted tern or tara (Sterna striata) is the most common tern living along New Zealand coasts, and on the Chatham and Auckland islands. Higgins, P.J. In Checklist Committee (OSNZ) 2010. Sexes are similar but females are slightly smaller. Common Tern NZOR Identifier: 9e3cf7a0-6e17-4647-aa63-7b66f26f90cb. The influence of age on laying date, clutch size, and egg size of the white-fronted tern, Sterna striata. (eds.) A ‘strange’ tern was first spotted by Sav as we scanned the birds roosting at the high tide flock on the end of the spit. They are the most abundant tern … The eyelids, eyes and bill are black, and the legs vary from black to dull red-brown. They have the black nape streaked with white and the wing coverts and distinctive light brown mottling. scotland, uk - common tern stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images common tern on a bird house, michias seal island - common tern stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images The New Zealand population has been in decline over the last 40 years. At Kaikoura in 1976, of 180 nests, 81% contained one egg and 19% two. It has a long black bill and short black legs. Book accommodation in Miranda; Shakespeare Regional Park – Pest proof fenced bird sanctuary with wild Kiwi. Reader’s Digest, Sydney. 2010. The sub-family comprises about 42 species in seven genera. The most widespread subspecies S. h. hirundo, which has reached Australia but not yet New Zealand, has an orange-red bill with a black tip when in breeding plumage. The common tern is a rare vagrant to New Zealand, but is probably an annual visitor that is often over-looked. Ornithological Society of New Zealand & Te Papa Press, Wellington. Before laying, the male courtship-feeds the female, presenting small fish to her. oban, argyll. In Miskelly, C.M. High quality Terns inspired Art Prints by independent artists and designers from around the world. The legs are also red. The name ‘white-fronted’ refers to the ‘frons’ or forehead, where a thin strip of white separates the black cap from the black bill. Similar species: the white-fronted tern is easily distinguished from the two other widespread New Zealand tern species (the much larger Caspian tern, and smaller, darker black-fronted tern), but is very similar to the Arctic tern and especially the common tern, which are rare visitors to New Zealand. The best places to spot birds near Auckland. Other names: tara, kahawai bird, sea-swallow, swallow tail, black-billed tern, whitefronted tern, white fronted tern, White-fronted tern. 1957. New Zealand Birds Online. Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) with prey, flying past the sun, Minsener Oog, East Frisian Islands, Lower Saxony Wadden Sea. A medium-sized tern with pale grey upperparts, red or black legs, and a straight red or black bill. Viking: Auckland. Tiritiri Matangi Island – Bird Sanctuary accessible by Ferry from Auckland CBD, a great day trip. Feeding terns dive from 5-10 m above the surface. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic birds. The bird gallery links to in-depth descriptions of most New Zealand birds. Lari. white fronted tern, Sterna striata, found in New Zealand Birds' bird gallery section, includes general information about the bird, taxonomy, description, where to find them and other useful and interesting information. Tennyson, A.J.D. http://www.nzbirds.com/birds/whitefrontedtern.html, http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/speciesfactsheet.php?id=3267. Break out your top hats and monocles; it’s about to classy in here. Summary. The bill and feet are red… www.nzbirdsonline.org.nz, Similar species: White-fronted tern, Arctic tern, Antarctic tern. The tail is white and forked; the length of the tail and depth of the fork decrease in size outside of the breeding season. Vol. Common tern. Ruawai, Northland, March 2015. common tern (sterna hirundo) flying in oban town centre while fishing. Recently fledged birds have fine blackish barring (striations) over the back and wing coverts. The outer edge of the first primary has a narrow black or brownish-black band. 2013 [updated 2020]. • Beaman, Mark; Madge, Steve; Burn, Hilary; Zetterstrom, Dan (1998). It is light grey above, has red or black legs, and a straight black bill. Around 15 species of terns can be seen on our shores - including both the Antarctic and Arctic Terns, and the rarely seen, ironically named Common Tern. The white-fronted tern is the most common tern on the New Zealand coastline, at times occurring in flocks of many hundreds or even thousands of birds. Some of these mix with flocks of New Zealand’s native white-fronted terns. Mainly coastal, but also occurs inland locally. It is pale grey above and white below, with a black cap that is separated from the bill by a white band. The eastern subspecies of the common tern is on its nesting grounds from May to September. But your walls are better. Similar species: easily confused with other medium-sized tern species and only distinguished with care. 2000 (revised edition). Terns Several species of tern migrate to New Zealand each year in small numbers. (ed.) ; Turbott, E.G. Breeding adults have a black cap that extends from the white frontal strip down to the back of neck; non-breeding adults have a reduced cap leaving the forehead white. Caspian Tern: Gull-billed Tern (NZ vagrant) Crested Tern (NZ vagrant) White-fronted Tern: Common Tern: Arctic Tern (NZ vagrant) Antarctic Tern: Little Tern: Fairy Tern: Sooty Tern: Bridled Tern (NZ vagrant) Whiskered Tern (NZ vagrant) White-winged Black Tern (NZ vagrant) Grey Ternlet: Common Noddy (NZ vagrant) Black Noddy: White Tern 1980. Colorful nature background. White-fronted terns feed on small and larval fish at sea, in lagoons or up rivers. 3, snipe to pigeons. It has since been reported almost every year from locations in the North Island; there are also a few South Island records. The first confirmed record was from Pukerua Bay, north of Wellington, in January 1984. It is mainly a marine species that is seldom found far from the coast. All orders are custom made and most ship worldwide within 24 hours. The difference between a non-breeding common tern and an adult breeding white-fronted tern is that a non-breeding common tern is notably smaller, has a smaller and finer beak, longer legs, and a dark shoulder strap. The Sterninae, a sub-family of the Laridae, is comprised of the terns and noddies, a cosmopolitan group of seabirds, with narrow pointed wings and long pointed bills, They are mostly slimmer, longer-tailed and more aerial than gulls. The white-fronted tern is the most common tern on the New Zealand coastline, at times occurring in flocks of many hundreds or even thousands of birds. They usually have red bills with black tips (all-black in Asian longipennis). The trans-Tasman dispersal of the white-fronted tern (Sterna striata, Gm.) They nest in dense colonies which provide little protection against predation by introduced mammalian predators such as stoats, ferrets, cats, and rats. Printed on 100% cotton watercolour textured paper, Art Prints would be at home in any gallery. Their name refers to the narrow white band between their black cap and bill. All orders are custom made and most ship worldwide within 24 hours. This volume presents over 100 previously unpublished photographs of the three species of common tern in New Zealand: Black-fronted tern, Caspian tern, White-fronted tern. The 1-3 (usually 1) eggs are laid in a slight depression on the bare ground without any nesting material. Taranui, the Caspian Tern, Sterna caspia, found in New Zealand Birds' bird gallery section, includes general information about the bird, taxonomy, description, where to find them and other useful and interesting information. Prey (mainly small fish) is normally taken by surface or shallow plunging and occasional dipping. There are no diet data from New Zealand. Inspired designs on t-shirts, posters, stickers, home decor, and more by independent artists and designers from around the world. It is mainly a marine species that is seldom found far from the coast. It is mainly a marine species that is seldom found far from the coast. Sometimes a site will be used in successive seasons, but usually the birds change sites in successive years even if they were successful at a specific site the previous season. The Antarctic Tern is a medium-sized tern (length 32-36 cm, wingspan 72-79 cm) with grey body and wings, white rump, a white deeply forked tail, and distinctive black cap that reaches down to the bill. Flight calls (nonbreeding, with whimbrel in background). Photo about Common tern with black bill, migratory visitor to New Zealand. The white-fronted tern is the largest and palest of the three species. 2013. It breeds from eastern Siberia south to China. The white-fronted tern or tara (Sterna striata) is the most common tern living along New Zealand coasts, and on the Chatham and Auckland islands. Guest, R. 1992. Terns tend to arrive at a prospective nesting location only a few days before laying, and there is a high degree of synchronisation of laying within a colony. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica (4th edn). The field guide to the birds of New Zealand. They can be difficult to tell apart from other similar-looking terns. Most of the terns remain in New Zealand during the winter, but in autumn some white-fronted terns, mostly immatures, disperse to south-eastern Australia. These wintering terns are frequently seen on the coasts of New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland. So there isn’t much contrast with the white cheek. Clark, W.C.; Dawson, E.W. There are many pelagic records from Australia (i.e. ISBN 0-7136-3960-1. 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